Thomas Aquinas was born the son of a count in Italy in 1225
He began schooling at age 5, and his parents sent him to a university in Naples when he was old enough. He was really influenced by the writings of Aristotle, and also by the new order of monks, the Dominicans.
At age 19, he joined the Dominicans. His parents didn't really like it when he joined the Dominicans, so they kidnapped him and kept him at home for 2 years, Thomas eventually escaped and rejoined the Dominicans monks.
Thomas decided to write the Christian theology in a systematic way, using Aristotelian logic and thinking. One of his greatest work was the Summa Theologica. He left the manuscript unfinished however.
Thomas became a priest and was ordained in 1250. He also completed his Doctorate in Theology, while teaching a school in Paris. Thomas' time was spent in prayer, study, and writing during these years.
The Pope summoned him to attend a council, on the way he was hit by a falling tree and became ill. He died a few days later in 1274 while reciting the Song of Solomon.
Thomas influenced the church by using Aristotle's logic to study scripture, he also argued that based solely on the evidence in nature, man can logically prove there is god, he also taught a new connection between science and theology.