So this week I will be talking about Ancient Greece. Greece is a lot of little islands surrounding a rocky coastal mainland.
The first settlers lived on the coast of the mainland, but since the mainland was a very rocky coastal, and was very hard to grow food, so the settlers started spreading to the islands, and started living on the islands.
Greece started as an agricultural civilization but quickly turned into a trading system and a colonized civilization, because the rocky coastal did not really let them be an agricultural civilization.
The two earliest civilization was the Mycenaean and the Minoans. They both have very different cultures. The Mycenaean were a very warlike people and expanded their territory when they were low on food. But the Minoan were a very peaceful society and focused on building their culture, they settled on the island Crete, they also famous because they built the Palace of Knossos.
The Mycenaean were defeated by other Greek tribes at Troy. Perhaps they were the original Sea people, since they expanded their territory around the Mediterranean. They owned Cyprus for a while and defeated the early Hittites, but then the Mycenaean were destroyed by Egypt.
After the Mycenaean, Greece entered the time called the Dark Ages. The Dorians took over the Mycenaean cities, they did not use the writing style as the Mycenaean, but invented a new writing style called Greek, so we have don't have much records of the Mycenaean. The High Greek culture returned around 800 BC, we know that because the written records began and the Greeks began trading a colonizing around the Mediterranean.
Each colonies had their own government, the city-states worked towards their common goal, but were only loosely connected politically. Democracy began in Athens.
The states only joined together when Persia attacked in 500 BC. The Persian Wars lasted over a decade, then Greece won and Persia never again invade Europe.
The two biggest rivalry are the two common states Athens and Sparta. Athens is more about developing culture, but Sparta is a more warlike people. The Peloponnesian War was against Athens and Sparta, fighting about who would be the most dominant city-state in Greece, and then Sparta won the Peloponnesian War.
Alexander the Great grew up in Macedonia, but his empire started in Greece. He was a great general, he conquered all of Middle East before he turned 30 years old. He died very young, but he did not leave a plan for his general to succeed him. His general did succeed him, but their reign did not last long. During Alexanders reign, over 30 cities were name after him including the famous one in Egypt.
After Alexander died the Holy Rome Empire took over Greece.